神學論綱(Scott Clark)

神學論綱(神學命題)
THESES THEOLOGICAE (Theological Propositions)

By Dr. R. Scott Clark -Associate Professor of Historical and Systematic Theology, Westminster Seminary California
作者:Scott Clark,加州西敏神學院歷史神學與系統神學副教授
原文登載於:https://rscottclark.org/2003/08/theses-theologicae-theological-propositions/
唐興譯/誠之編校

前言Introduction

從中世紀以來,神學家們就以一種簡潔的、有時會發人深省的命題形式,來陳述他們的神學,以引發討論。Since the medieval period, theologians have stated theology in the form of brief, sometimes provocative, propositions to be discussed.

一、神學導論Prolegomena
二、神論Theology Proper
三、人論Anthropology
四、基督論Christology
五、救恩論Soteriology
六、教會論Ecclesiology
七、末世論Eschatology
八、倫理學Ethics

一、 神學導論Prolegomena

  1. 神學需要作適當的區分。Theology requires proper distinctions.
  2. 更正教學者適當地把「原型神學」(archetypal theology)和「副本神學」(ectypal theology)區分開來。原型神學是神自己裏面的知識,副本神學是上帝向我們啟示出來的知識。The Protestant scholastics distinguished properly between archetypal (theology as God knows it in himself) and ectypal theology (theology as God reveals it to us).
  3. 原型神學是三位一體神對祂自己、以及對任何其他事實或可能,所一直擁有的知識。因此,除了我們對祂的經歷,或是祂向我們啟示的神學之外,上帝另外擁有一種神學。Archetypal theology is the understanding which the Triune God has always had of himself, and of every other fact or possibility. Therefore God has a theology apart from our experience of him or his self-revelation to us.
  4. 副本神學是上帝為了俯就人而產生的自我啟示,這樣的啟示被記錄在神的聖言中。因為創造者與受造者在他們的本體上是不同的,神在聖經中的自我啟示,就有必要俯就人的有限。Ectypal theology is God’s accommodated self-revelation in the Word of God written. Because of the ontological distinction between the Creator and the creature God’s self-revelation in the Bible is necessarily accommodated to human finitude.
  5. 未能區分原型神學和副本神學,將會導致「基要主義」(fundamentalism)(將人的心智等同於神的心智,而宣稱一種不合理的確信)或是「懷疑主義」(skepticism)。Failure to distinguish between archetypal and ectypal theology necessarily leads either to fundamentalism (i.e., the illegitimate claim of certainty by identifying the mind of man with God’s mind) or to skepticism.
  6. 因為是副本(啟示的)神學,聖經中「擬人法」的語言(anthropomorphic language),就必須以類比(analogical)的方式來理解。Because it is ectypal (revealed) theology, Scripture’s anthropomorphic language about God must be understood to be analogical.
  7. 因為聖經是聖靈工作的產物,所以它是無謬(infallible)、無誤(inerrant),被記錄下來的神的話。Scripture, because it is the product of the Holy Spirit, is the infallible, inerrant, word of God written.
  8. 「天路客神學」(Pilgrim Theology;或譯為朝聖者神學、客旅神學)就是:理解、調適、並應用聖經的(副本)真理。Pilgrim Theology is the apprehension, appropriation, and application of biblical (theologia ectypa) truth.
  9. 啟示是雙重的:自然啟示和聖經啟示。Revelation is twofold: natural and Scriptural.
  10. 自然啟示是真實的,但不具救贖功能。Natural revelation is true but not saving.
  11. 聖經是首要且獨一的神學來源。Scripture is the primary and unique source of theology.
  12. 對自然啟示的研究必定會讓我們對聖經的解釋更有見地,但它不能主導我們對聖經的解釋。Study of general revelation must inform but not control our interpretation of Scripture.
  13. 神學必須能解釋「一與眾」(the one and the many)的問題。Theology must always account for the one and the many.
  14. 基督教信仰是最理性的信仰,但基督徒之所以相信,主要不是因為它是理性的信仰。The Christian faith is the most rational thing to believe but Christians do not believe it primarily because it is so.
  15. 基督徒必須拒絕把信仰和生活整合在一起(彷彿它們原本是分開的那樣),就如他們必須拒絕把上帝所配合的分開那樣。The Christian must not integrate faith and life as much as refuse to disintegrate what God has already united.
  16. 聖經是信仰與生活首要且唯一的權威,亦即,「唯獨聖經」(sola Scriptura)仍然是更正教(Protestantism)的正式原則(或譯為形式原則)。Scripture is the primary and unique authority for faith and life, i.e. sola Scriptura is still the formal principle of Protestantism.
  17. 聖經是由兩句話組成的:律法與福音。律法描述了神對祂所創造的人的道德要求,而福音則是描寫神對罪人恩典的供應。Scripture is composed of two words: Law and Gospel. The Law describes God’s moral demands of his creatures and the Gospel describes God’s gracious provision for sinners.
  18. 對真正的更正教和改革宗的釋經學來說,律法和福音的二分法是絕對必要的。The Law-Gospel dichotomy is absolutely necessary for a genuinely Protestant and Reformed hermeneutic.
  19. 要以經解經,以新約解釋舊約,以清楚的經文解釋不清楚的經文。Scripture interprets Scripture, the new interprets the old, and the clear interprets the unclear.
  20. 「現代主義」(Modernism)是一種對抗基督教的「次基督教」。Modernism is a competing sub-Christian religion.
  21. 追求進步的「新福音派」是一種「軟性」的現代主義。Progressive neo-evangelicalism is a form of “soft” modernism.
  22. 「字面直譯」不是真理的同義詞。Literal is not a synonym for true.
  23. 人得救所必須相信的一切,都已經清楚啟示在聖經中了。Everything which one must believe for salvation is clearly revealed in Scripture.
  24. 卡爾巴特(Karl Barth)是一位「新現代主義」,而非「新正統主義」神學家,也就是說,他用基督教詞彙表來表達現代主義,而不是用現代的詞彙來講述基督教。Karl Barth was a neo-Modernist, not neo-Orthodox, theologian, i.e. he was expressing Modernity in Christian terms, not Christianity in Modern terms.
  25. 由於基督教是一種啟示的宗教,所以它不需要人的修改或拯救。Inasmuch as it is a revealed religion Christianity is not susceptible of human revision or rescue.
  26. 追求進步的「新福音派」(progressive neo-evangelicals)未能充分地珍惜正統的更正教傳統(orthodox Protestant tradition)。Progressive neo-evangelicals do not sufficiently value the orthodox Protestant tradition.
  27. 基督信仰中有四個絕對必要的奧秘:神是三位一體的神;基督是一個位格、兩種本性;神有絕對的主權,然而人類卻要在道德上為他們的行為向神負責;祂未定旨的,仍然可以隨己意啟示出來。There are four necessary mysteries in the Christian faith: God is one in three persons; Christ is one person with two natures; God is absolutely sovereign yet human beings are morally liable for their actions; God reveals himself as desiring what he has not decreed.
  28. 新約聖經對舊約聖經的釋經和解釋,規範了我們對聖經的使用和釋經的準則。The N.T. hermeneutic and interpretation of the O.T. norms our hermeneutic and use of Scripture.

二、神論 Theology Proper

  1. 所有的神學都源於神論(the Doctrine of God)。All theology flows from the Doctrine of God.
  2. 聖經所啟示的神,在祂自己裏面不會虧損(不動情),也不會改變(永不改變)。The God who is revealed in Scripture neither suffers (impassable) nor changes (immutable), in himself.
  3. 聖經的神對我們說話,向我們啟示自己。The biblical God speaks and reveals himself.
  4. 聖經區分了「在祂本體裏的神」和「向我們啟示出來的神」。Scripture distinguishes between God as he is in himself and God as he is revealed to us.
  5. 改革宗神學的神論具有「意志主義者」(voluntarist)(譯按:指神的意志高於祂的理性)和「唯實論者」(realist)的成分在內。Reformed theology has both voluntarist and realist elements in its doctrine of God.
  6. 基督論必須與神論區分開來。Christology must be distinguished from the doctrine of God.
  7. 神是一而三的,是同永恆(co-eternal)、同本質的三個位格(persons)。God is one in three, co-eternal, consubstantial persons.
  8. 所有的基督徒都相信正統的三一神教義。All Christians believe the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity.
  9. 創造和救贖在特性和工作上都是三位一體式的。Both creation and redemption are Trinitarian in character and operation.
  10. 奧古斯丁的預定論是正確的,伯拉糾(否定預定論)則是錯誤的。The Western Church was correct to condemn Pelagius was wrong.
  11. 聖靈神乃是在永恆裏從父和子所「出」(proceeds)的(filioque是對的)。God the Spirit proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son (i.e. the filioque is correct).
  12. 神在永恆裏已經作了不可改變的決定。God has made certain immutable decisions from all eternity.
  13. 神的主權並不排除人的道德責任和義務。Divine sovereignty does not preclude human, moral, liability.
  14. 萬有都是按照神慈父般的護佑而發生的。All things happen according to God’s fatherly providence.

三、 人論 Anthropology

  1. 我們是按照神的形象(in imago Dei)受造的。We were created in imago Dei
  2. 在人的墮落中,這個形象毀損了,但卻未全然喪失。In the fall the image was marred but not lost entirely.
  3. 聖經排除了人類祖先是進化而來的可能。Scripture precludes the possibility of evolutionary ancestors.
  4. 否認人類是特殊的創造,就會危害到基督論的論述:基督是新人類的元首。Denial of the special creation of humanity jeopardizes the doctrine of Christ’s federal headship.
  5. 在完滿成全(consummation)的此岸,存在著一種普世性的、無差別的、神聖的愛。There is universal, indiscriminate, divine benevolence this side of the consummation.
  6. 此二者同樣為真:我們既是神的形象,也擁有這形象。 It is true both that we are the image and we possess it.
  7. 神的形象存在於我們的理性、意志、情感的能力中,也存在於我們的身體內。The image consists in our rational, volitional, affective faculties, and in our bodies.
  8. 我們的形象唯獨藉著與基督聯合才能更新。 The image is renewed only by union with Christ.
  9. 奧古斯丁對罪的教導(墮落之後不能不犯罪)是正確的,伯拉糾是錯誤的。(Post-lapsum non posse non peccare)。Augustine was right on sin and Pelagius was wrong, i.e., Post-lapsum non posse non peccare.
  10. 我們犯罪是因為我們是罪人。We sin because we are sinners.
  11. 基督徒既是聖徒,也是罪人。The Christian is simul iustus et peccator.
  12. 在今生達到完全和完美,是不可能的。Entire perfection, in this life, is impossible.
  13. 墮落後,我們無能力與神的恩典合作以至於稱義(justification)。Post-lapsum we are unable to cooperate with divine grace toward justification.
  14. 亞當是全人類的元首,也就是說,因著亞當的墮落,我們都犯了罪。Adam is the federal head of all humanity, to wit, “In Adam’s fall, sinned we all.”
  15. 因為神的主權,人類在道德上必須對其行為負責任。Human beings are morally liable for their actions because of God’s sovereignty.
  16. 任何人否認了墮落前的行為之約,就危害了聖經與更正教的稱義教義——唯獨靠著恩典、藉著信心、在基督裏被稱義。 Anyone who denies the prelapsarian covenant of works jeopardizes the Biblical and Protestant doctrine of justification by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone.

四、基督論Christology

  1. 耶穌基督是真實的歷史人物。Jesus Christ is an historical person.
  2. 福音書對耶穌的記載是確實可靠的。The gospel accounts of Christ are true and reliable.
  3. 所有的基督徒都相信總結於大公教會信條中之正統的基督論。All Christians believe the orthodox doctrine of Christ summarized in the catholic creeds.
  4. 所有的基督徒都相信耶穌是童女懷孕所生。All Christians believe Jesus’ virgin conception and birth.
  5. 基督在一個位格中有兩種不同的本性(two natures in one person)。Christ has two natures in one person.
  6. 基督的人性在取了肉身之前並不存在。Jesus’ humanity had no existence prior to the incarnation.
  7. 基督是一個完全的人,祂沒有取用一個既存的人身。Jesus is a person and did not adopt an existing human person.
  8. 基督的意識(consciousness)有兩個來源,其自我意識(self-consciousness)只有一個中心。Christ has two sources of consciousness and one center of self-consciousness.
  9. 耶穌自己知道祂是「神而人」者。Jesus was self-consciously the God-Man.
  10. 基督為祂的子民贖了他們的罪,並且挽回了神的忿怒。Christ expiated the sins and propitiated the divine wrath for all his people.
  11. 基督必須是完全的神和完全的人才能成就救贖。Christ had to be fully God and fully man to accomplish redemption.
  12. 基督是祂所有子民的元首和代表。Christ is federal, representative head of all his people.
  13. 耶穌藉著祂的主動和被動的順服成為祂子民的擔保。Jesus came to be the surety for all his people by his active and passive obedience.
  14. 改革宗神學對「屬性傳遞」的教義(communication of the properties:communicatio idiomatum)就是:凡是對兩種本性(natures)來說是真的,對位格(person)來說也是真的,但是對位格來說是真的,在事實上(ipso facto)不能說對兩種本性來說也是真的。The Reformed doctrine of the communication of the properties (communicatio idiomatum) is this: What can be said of the two natures can be said of the person but what can be said of the person cannot ipso facto be said of the two natures.
  15. 神子在過去和現在都是「在基督之外的」(extra Christum),祂在成為肉身以前就與祂的子民同在,在成為肉身以後乃是藉著聖靈與祂的子民同在。God the Son was and is extra Christum and was present with his people prior to the incarnation and by the Holy Spirit after the incarnation.
  16. 耶穌的人性得了榮耀,但是卻沒有因祂的升天而被祂的神性所改變。Jesus’ humanity was glorified but not overwhelmed by his Deity, in the ascension.

五、救恩論 Soteriology

  1. 聖經的神乃是藉著立約與祂的受造物建立關係。The God of the Bible relates to his creatures covenantally.
  2. 聖約神學或盟約神學(Covenant or federal theology)是改革宗神學的本質,改變了它就改變了改革宗神學。Covenant or federal theology is so of the essence of Reformed theology that to revise it is to revise the substance of Reformed theology.
  3. 傳統的改革宗神學教導,有三個不同的聖約:救贖之約(the covenant of redemption)(pactum salutis),行為之約(the covenant of works)(foedus operum),和恩典之約(the covenant of grace)(foedus gratiae)。Classical Reformed theology teaches three distinct covenants: the covenant of redemption (pactum salutis), the covenant of works (foedus operum), and the covenant of grace (foedus gratiae).
  4. 時間之前的救贖之約(pactum salutis)是行為之約和恩典之約的基礎。The pre-temporal covenant of redemption (pactum salutis) stands behind the covenant of works and covenant of grace.
  5. 救贖歷史中的聖約安排,以及聖約在聖經中的漸進啟示,都不只是協議而已,而是反映了三位一體神在神的位格之間的一種聖約關係。The covenantal arrangement of the history of redemption and the covenantal progressive revelation of Scripture is not a mere convention, but rather a reflection of the intra-Trinitarian covenantal relations among the persons of the Deity.
  6. 墮落前的聖約,就其條件來說可稱為行為之約,就其目的而言可稱為生命之約;但就其背景來說則可稱為自然之約。這三個不同名稱都是描述同一個聖約。The pre-lapsarian covenant may be called a covenant of works in respect to its terms, a covenant of life in respect to its goals, and a covenant of nature in respect to its setting. All three names describe the same covenant.
  7. 對改革宗神學而言,行為之約與律法是同一回事,它們都講到:人若如此遵行,就必永遠活著。In Reformed theology, the covenant of works is identical to the Law which says: Do this and live.
  8. 在改革宗神學中,恩典之約與福音是同義詞。In Reformed theology the covenant of grace is synonymous with the Gospel.
  9. 「單一聖約主義」(Monocovenantalism)拒絕區分恩典之約與行為之約,就隱含了對律法和福音的混淆。Monocovenantalism or refusal to distinguish between the covenants of works and grace implies a confusion of Law and Gospel.
  10. 每當我們提到聖約的一些措辭時,我們都應該說明是與哪一個聖約有關。When we speak in covenantal terms we should always specify to which covenant we refer.
  11. 福音不是某人蒙揀選的應許,而是一項事實陳述:基督順服了神的旨意、死了、並為了祂的子民被稱義而從死裏復活,且應許凡是在這位救主中有真信心的人都得蒙稱義、得蒙救贖。The Gospel is not a promise that one is elect. It is a statement of fact, that Christ obeyed, died, and was raised for the justification of his people and a promise that whoever has true faith in the Savior is justified and redeemed.
  12. 揀選是屬於救贖次序的上層結構,它本身不屬於救贖的施行。Election is the superstructure of our ordo salutis, but not itself the application of redemption.
  13. 儘管揀選和預定對改革宗神學來說是不可或缺的,但它們卻不是改革宗神學的充分條件;因為有許多神學家也這樣教導,但他們卻不是改革宗神學家。Though election and predestination are essential to Reformed theology they are not in themselves sufficient conditions for Reformed theology since many theologians have held and taught them without being Reformed.
  14. 揀選和預定最好是作為源自經驗的結論(a posteriori),用來說明一個人為何會信。改革宗神學並不是以揀選和預定教義為前提(a priori)而得出推論的。Election and predestination are best used a posteriori to explain how one came to faith. Reformed theology is not deduced a priori from the doctrines of election and predestination.
  15. 因此,一般而言,我們不從揀選來說明救恩,而是從在基督裏的「得救的信心」來說明揀選。Therefore, typically, we do not reason from election to our salvation, but we reason from our saving faith in Christ to our election.
  16. 與基督聯合的教義與預定的教義相似。若非與基督聯合,救恩就不可能發生;但是我們的系統不是從這點推論得出的,也不是從預定論的教義發展出來的。在改革宗神學中,與基督聯合的教義是作為一種源自經驗(a posteriori)的解釋,它闡明信徒們是如何得著基督的恩惠(就是:稱義、成聖、得榮耀)的。The doctrine of union with Christ is best understood as an analogue to the doctrine of predestination. Salvation is impossible without union with Christ but we do not deduce our system from it any more than we deduce our system from predestination. The Reformed doctrine of union with Christ serves as an a posteriori explanation of how believers have come into possession of the benefits of Christ (i.e., justification, sanctification, and glorification)
  17. 基督與我們的聯合最好區分為兩方面:聖約(federal)的聯合和生命(vital)的聯合。蒙揀選者與基督在永恆裏藉著神的旨意有一種聖約的聯合。It is best to distinguish two aspects of our union with Christ: federal and vital. The elect have a federal union with Christ from eternity by virtue of the decree.
  18. 藉著這種聖約的聯合,信徒們被帶領進入生命的聯合。Believers are brought into vital union by virtue of their federal union with Christ.
  19. 生命的聯合的第一個好處,是把救贖應用在聖靈的重生工作中(從死亡中復甦得生命),這是聖靈藉著福音的傳講所作成的。The first benefit of vital union is the application of redemption in the Spirit’s work of regeneration (awakening from death to life) by the Spirit through preaching of the gospel.
  20. 除非我們相信,否則不能得著與基督聯合的恩惠。因此我們的信仰告白文獻通常把與基督聯合(或交通)與在基督裏的信心(由領受基督、安息在基督裏來定義)緊密地關連在一起。Because we do not come into possession of the benefits of that union until we believe, our confessional documents usually associate union (or communion) with Christ closely with faith in Christ (defined as receiving and resting).
  21. 與基督聯合的教義不應該用來模糊此稱義行動中信心的本質,或是用來把信心邊緣化,只把信心當作稱義行動唯一的領受工具。The doctrine of union with Christ should not be used to obscure the nature of faith in the act of justification or to marginalize faith as the sole receptive instrument in the act of justification.
  22. 耶穌基督以祂對神的律法之主動順服和被動順服,完成並滿足了行為之約的要求。Jesus Christ fulfilled the covenant works in his active and passive obedience to God’s law on behalf of his people. The doctrine of union with Christ should not be used to obscure the nature of faith in the act of justification or to marginalize faith as the sole receptive instrument in the act of justification.
  23. 「靠著恩典入門,藉著行為得保守」(in by grace, stay in by works)的口號通常是與所謂的「保羅神學的新觀點(New Perspective on Paul;簡稱「保羅新觀」)」有關聯的。其實它正是保羅所譴責的加拉太教會異端。The slogan “in by grace, stay in by works,” is nothing less than the Galatian heresy condemned by the Apostle Paul.
  24. 墮落之後,恩典之約是在伊甸園裏正式啟動的。The covenant of grace was inaugurated in the garden, post lapsum.
  25. 恩典之約主要是神和蒙揀選者之間的關係。The covenant of grace is principally between God and the elect.
  26. 從起源來說,福音的授予是無條件的;但是接受它的恩惠是有條件的:那條件就是稱義的信心,信心的本身乃是神賜給祂選民的唯一禮物。The covenant of grace is monopleural in origin and dipleural in administration.
  27. 恩典之約的條件有廣義的用法與狹義的用法。廣義的用法,是指凡受洗而進入認信基督之聖約團體的人。狹義的用法,是專指著某些人而言,他們承受了基督雙重的恩惠:稱義與成聖。The term covenant of grace can be used broadly and narrowly. When used broadly, it refers to everyone who is baptized into the Christ confessing covenant community. When used narrowly, it refers to those who have received the double benefit of Christ: justification and sanctification.
  28. 廣義而言,凡受洗的人都可以說是進入了恩典之約。但並非每一個受洗者都領受到恩典之約的實質與恩惠。All baptized persons can be said to be in the covenant of grace in the broad sense. Not everyone who is baptized receives the substance or benefits of the covenant of grace.
  29. 對以下兩群人進行區分是合理和必要的:有一部分人處在廣義的(外在的)聖約裏;另有一部分人則是同時處在廣義和狹義的(內在的)聖約裏。There is a just and necessary distinction to be made between those who are in the covenant broadly (externally) and those who are in the covenant both broadly and narrowly (internally).
  30. 救贖之約不同於恩典之約,它也是恩典之約的基礎與根據。The pactum salutis is distinct from and the basis of the covenant of grace.
  31. 在救贖歷史中,恩典之約是藉著亞伯拉罕被更新的,這樣,亞伯拉罕就成了一切相信之人的父了。In the history of redemption, the covenant of grace was renewed in Abraham such that he is the father of all who believe.
  32. 在聖經裏,「舊的約」這個詞是用來指摩西時期,而不是指道成肉身以前的所有時期,也不是毫無分別地指所有的希伯來文和亞蘭文的聖經而言。The term “Old Covenant” as used in Scripture refers to the Mosaic epoch not every epoch before the incarnation nor to all of the Hebrew and Aramaic Scriptures indiscriminately.
  33. 舊的約對新約來說是暫時的、預表性的。The Old Covenant was temporary and typological of the New Covenant.
  34. 新的約是對亞當的應許(創三15)和(亞伯拉罕)恩典之約的更新。The New Covenant is a renewal of the promise made to Adam (Genesis 3:14-6) and the (Abrahamic) covenant of grace.
  35. 基督教是排他性的,因為它教導耶穌基督是、而且從來就是罪人唯一的救主。The Christian religion is exclusivist because it teaches that Jesus Christ is and always has been the only Savior for sinners.
  36. 律法和福音的區分是必然和必需的,因為前者只帶來定罪,後者只帶來稱義。The Law and the Gospel are necessarily dichotomous since the former only condemns and the later only justifies.
  37. 所有的罪人都是唯獨靠著恩典、唯獨藉著信心,和唯獨在基督裏被稱義的。Sinners are justified by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone.
  38. 我們成為聖潔是因為我們被稱義,反之者否。We are sanctified because we are justified, not vice versa.
  39. 善行對被稱義的人來說,在邏輯上和道德上是必須的,亦即,它們無非是一個人確實已經被稱義的證據。Good works are logically and morally necessary for the justified, i.e. they are nothing more or less than the evidence that one is indeed justified.
  40. 任何人說善行是稱義的根據和方法,就是否認了基督的福音。Anyone who says that good works are part of the instrument or ground of justification has denied the Gospel of Christ.
  41. 基督的主動順服和被動順服是罪人稱義的唯一根據。Christ’s active and passive obedience is the only ground for the justification of sinners.
  42. 稱義(唯獨恩典,唯獨信心)仍然是更正教的實質原則。Justification (sola gratia, sola fide) is still the material principle of Protestant Christianity
  43. 得救的信心是唯獨領受基督,領受祂的義和功勞。Saving faith is faith which alone apprehends Christ, his righteousness, and merits.
  44. 在稱義的行動裏,信心不是一種被注入的善行,而是神聖的禮物,是唯一的、足夠的、信賴的、接受的、安穩的、純一的、領悟的「稱義的器皿」(instrument of justification)。Faith, in the act of justification, is not an infused virtue, but a divine gift and the sole, adequate, trusting, receiving, resting, simple, apprehensive instrument of justification.
  45. 在稱義的行動裏,信心的能力是唯獨因著它的對象而產生的,這對象就是:基督和祂的義。The power of faith, in the act of justification, lies only its object which is Christ and his righteousness.
  46. 在稱義的行動裏,信心不包括「所有其它得救的恩典」,它們是伴隨著信心而來的。在稱義的行動裏,要讓信心包括「所有其它得救的恩典」,就等於是採用了羅馬天主教對信心所下的定義:「由愛(善行)所塑造」。In the act of justification, faith does not contain “all other saving graces,” but rather is accompanied by them. To make faith, in the act of justification, to contain “all other saving graces,” is to adopt the Roman definition of faith as “formed by love.”
  47. 任何對信心所下的定義,若是包含多過於一個元素(例如:信心+行為)或是任何基督以外的對象和祂完成的工作,就是不符聖經的,也是不符更正教原則的。Any definition of faith which contains more than one element (e.g., faith and works) or any other object than Christ and his finished work is sub-Biblical and sub-Protestant.
  48. 諾曼•謝伯(Norman Shepherd)所構建出來的「順服的信心」的教義,因為教導在稱義的行動中一種複雜的信心之法,說我們被稱義的根據不只是藉著信心,安息並領受此義——歸算給我們的基督的義——而被稱義,因此就是否認了「唯獨信心」和「唯獨基督」。The doctrine of “obedient faith” (or “covenant faithfulness”) as formulated by Norman Shepherd teaches a complex instrument of faith in the act of justification whereby we are not justified only on the ground of Christ’s righeousness imputed received through faith resting in and receiving that righteousness alone and therefore denies sola fide and solo Christo.
  49. 稱義的恩典不是一種實體,而是那不配得的神的恩寵。Justifying grace is not a substance but unmerited divine favor.
  50. 神聖的恩典,是根據不能改變之神的主權意志,因此,它是無法抗拒的。Divine grace is grounded in the sovereign will of the immutable God and is therefore irresistible.
  51. 神隨己意把我們的罪歸算到基督的身上,而把基督的義歸算到罪人身上。God freely imputes our sin to Christ and his righteousness to sinners.
  52. 改革宗神學的「救恩次序」(ordo salutis)是合乎聖經的教義,不是憑空建構的。The Reformed ordo salutis is not a speculative construct but a biblical doctrine.
  53. 所謂的新福音派的救恩論,有許多都是不屬於更正教的,因此,不能說是真正的福音派。這裏面所說的福音派(evangelical)是由16、17世紀宗教改革神學家所界定的。Much of so-called neo-evangelical soteriology has been and is sub-Protestant and therefore not truly evangelical as that adjective is defined by the 16th- and 17th-century Reformation theologians.
  54. 得救的確據是使人得救之信心的本質。Assurance is of the essence of saving faith.
  55. 基督的順服和神的應許是確據的基礎。Christ’s obedience and the divine promise is the ground of assurance.
  56. 實用的「人神合作」論,會對神的應許有所加添。The practical syllogism may supplement the divine promises.
  57. 傳福音適當的定義是公開、正式的福音宣講。Evangelism is properly defined as the public, official, proclamation of the Gospel.
  58. 廣傳福音是「道明會」的使命。Evangelism is a Dominical mandate.
  59. 每個基督徒都有義務去為信心以及他個人如何應用這個信心作見證。Every Christian has an obligation to give witness to the faith and to his personal appropriation of that faith
  60. 神啟示祂自己願所有的人都得救,雖然祂的旨意是只有被揀選的才得救。God reveals himself as desiring the redemption of all though he has decreed only the salvation of the elect.
  61. 福音的賜與是無條件的、普世性的、善意的,但是卻非意味著普世的人都有能力相信它。The free, universal, well-meant, offer of the gospel does not imply universal ability to believe.
  62. 並非每一個人都會得救。Not everyone will be saved.
  63. 只有蒙揀選的才會相信。Only the elect will believe.
  64. 所有蒙揀選者都不會失去其救恩。None of the elect will be lost.

六、教會論Ecclesiology

  1. 教會是普世性、也是地方性的「認信基督的聖約團體」。The church is both the universal and local Christ-confessing covenant community.
  2. 上帝所制定與描繪的職事和教會法庭是存在的,它們具有教導、牧養、司法的權柄。There are divinely prescribed and described offices and ecclesiastical courts with teaching, ministerial, and judicial authority.
  3. 在認信基督的聖約團體中,上帝命定了三個特定職事:牧師、長老、執事。God has ordained three special offices in the Christ-confessing covenant community: minister, elder and deacon.
  4. 這三個職事各有不同的功用:牧師的職事是先知性質的;長老的職事是君王性質的;執事的職事是祭司性質的。These three offices have distinct functions. The ministerial office is prophetic, the presbyterial office is kingly, and the diaconate is priestly in nature.
  5. 真教會有三個記號:傳講純正的神的話、合宜的執行聖禮、執行懲戒。The marks of the true church are the pure preaching of the gospel, the pure administration of the sacraments, and the exercise of discipline.
  6. 最主要的蒙恩之道(means of grace,或譯為施恩管道、恩具)是宣講神的話,聖靈藉著神的話,把得救的信心施作在信徒的內心。The preaching of the Gospel is the chief means of grace and that through which God the Spirit creates saving faith among the elect.
  7. 聖禮的功能是要使得救的信心在蒙揀選者的心裏得到確認。The function of the sacraments is to confirm saving faith among the elect.
  8. 聖禮是恩典之約的記號(signs)和印記(seals)。The sacraments are signs and seals of the covenant of grace.
  9. 因為是記號和印記,所以它們指向救恩的事實。As signs they point to the reality of salvation.
  10. 印記有兩個意義:The word “seal” may be taken in two senses.
    i. 如果把印記視為「應許」,它的意思就是應許那些受印記的人,只要信耶穌就會被稱為義。If “seal” means “promise,” then it is a promise to all whom it is administered that whoever believes in Christ is justified.
    ii. 如果把印記視為「保證」,它的意思就是對那些被揀選者作保證:聖禮所表明的一切,對他們而言都是真實的,並會實現。If “seal” is taken to mean “guarantee,” then it is a guarantee to the elect that everything signified by the sacrament shall actually be true of and for them.
    iii. 以後者的義意來看,聖禮對所有的人來說,都是一個記號;然而,對被揀選者來說,它則是一個印記。Taken in the latter sense, the sacraments are signs to all but seals only to the elect.
  11. 作為恩典之約的記號和印記,它們是福音而不是律法。As signs and seals of the covenant of grace, they are Gospel not Law.
  12. 聖禮是神命定的成聖恩典的管道(means of sanctifying grace),而非稱義恩典的管道(means of justifying grace)。The sacraments are divinely ordained means of sanctifying not justifying grace.
  13. 唯有洗禮和主餐是神規定的聖禮。The only divinely ordained sacraments are baptism and the Lord’s Supper.
  14. 聖禮是可見的神的道。The sacraments are God’s Word visible.
  15. 聖經教導聖約孩童應當受洗。Scripture teaches the baptism of covenant children.
  16. 孩童受洗並非是基於他們得重生的假設,而是根據洗禮是神的吩咐和應許。We do not baptize covenant children on the presumption of their regeneration, but on basis of the divine command and promises attached to baptism.
  17. 洗禮本身並不會使人重生。Baptism does not itself regenerate.
  18. 洗禮不會使每一個受洗的人都與基督聯合。Baptism does not unite every baptized person “head for head” to Christ.
  19. 因為與基督的聯合是「救恩次序」(ordo salutis)(就是:救贖的施行)的源頭,所以,教導洗禮必定會把每一受洗者聯合於基督,就等於是說藉著施行這個工作(ex opere operato)就賦予了救恩的施行。這是一項巨大的錯謬。Since union with Christ is the headwaters of the ordo salutis (i.e. the application of redemption), to teach that baptism necessarily unites the baptized to Christ is to say it ex opere operato confers the application of redemption upon every baptized person. This is a gross error.
  20. 認為洗禮必定會把凡受洗者聯於基督,就等於除去了教會是有形的組織和無形的有機體的區別,這個區別是聖經和改革宗神學的教導。To say that baptism necessarily unites the baptized to Christ obliterates the Biblical and Reformed distinction between the church considered as a visible institution and as an invisible organism.
  21. 洗禮並不應許所有的受洗者必定都會重生(從屬靈的死亡中蘇醒,得著生命)。Baptism does not promise that all the baptized are or will necessarily be regenerated (awakened from spiritual death to life).
  22. 洗禮對凡受洗者而言,都是一個記號(sign),不論是否得重生,蒙揀選。Baptism is a sign to all who baptized, whether regenerate and elect or not.
  23. 洗禮對信徒的應許是確實的,就如同外在水洗是確實的,它表明基督的義已確實地歸算給信徒了。Baptism promises to the believer that as certainly as water washes outwardly, so also has Christ’s righteousness been imputed to him.
  24. 雖然在解經和歷史上偏向於灑水禮,但是洗禮的形式在倫理上是不重要的,這是因為在救贖歷史中,被淹沒的是那些不在挪亞方舟裏的人,以及法老和他的軍隊。洗禮是向基督和祂的死認同,而不是向那些被棄絕的人認同。The mode of baptism is morally indifferent though effusion is exegetically and historically preferable since, in the history of salvation, the only ones who were immersed were those who were not on the Ark with Noah and Pharaoh and his armies. Baptism is an identification with Christ and his death, not an identification with the reprobate.
  25. 聖餐是神所設立的,是聖約更新的記號和印記。The Lord’s Supper is the divinely instituted sign and seal of covenant renewal.
  26. 靠著聖靈的運行,藉著信心,在聖餐中基督使信徒們吃喝祂自己的身體和寶血。By the operation of the Holy Spirit, through faith, Christ feeds believers with his proper and natural body and blood in the Lord’s Supper.
  27. 改革宗基督徒的確表明基督是真實、真正、和當場的同在。祂的人性是真實、真正、和當場地同在於天上,並且藉著聖靈,使我們在主餐中吃喝祂自己的身體和寶血。Reformed Christians do confess Christ’s true, real and local presence. His humanity is truly, really and locally present in heaven and, by the Holy Spirit, we are taken to feed on his true, proper and natural body in the Supper.
  28. 羅馬天主教認為聖餐中的元素「化為」(become)基督的身體。Rome says that the elements of the Supper become Christ’s body.
  29. 路德認為基督的身體與聖餐的元素「在一起」(with)。Lutherans say that Christ’s body is with the elements.
  30. 慈運理派和福音派認為聖餐「使他們想起」(reminds them)基督的身體。Zwinglians and the Evangelicals say that the Supper reminds them of Christ’s body.
  31. 只有加爾文主義者能說聖餐「是」(is)基督的身體和血。Calvinists alone can say that the Supper is Christ’s body and blood.
  32. 要理問答系統(the system of the catechism)和「焦慮長椅」(anxious bench或譯為渴慕座、悔改座,見譯注)系統是互相對立的。The system of the catechism is opposed and superior to the system of the anxious bench.
  33. 末世論Eschatology
  34. 歷史是受造物,它有目的(telos),也有邊界(terminus)。History is a creature and has a telos and a terminus.
  35. 救恩是末世性的,因為它意味著從審判中得拯救,並進入最後的榮耀裏。Salvation is eschatological inasmuch as it entails deliverance from judgment to final glorification.
  36. 末世論是關於最終極和「末後」的事。Eschatology is about ultimate things as well as “last” things.
  37. 自從耶穌升天後,我們已經處在「末後的日子」裏。We have been in “the last days” since Jesus’ ascension.
  38. 聖經中有關末世的啟示是漸進的。Biblical eschatology was revealed progressively.
  39. 後千禧年論和前千禧年論都是一種「榮耀神學」(theology of glory)或「過度實現的末世論」(over-realized eschatology)。Postmillennialism and Premillennialism are both forms of a theology of glory or over-realized eschatology.
  40. 聖經的末世論是以基督為中心(Christocentric)的,而不是以以色列國為中心(Israeleocentric)的。Biblical eschatology is Christocentric not Israeleocentric.
  41. 後千禧年論和前千禧年論在本質上都是千禧年派。Postmillennialism and Premillennialism are both essentially chiliast.
  42. 基督在地上統治一千年是不合聖經的。There will be no earthly millennial reign of Christ.
  43. 基督從來都只有一群屬祂的子民。Christ has always had only one people.
  44. 基督的再來將會是親身、可見、可聞的,祂來是要完成救恩。Christ will return bodily, visibly, audibly, to consummate salvation.
  45. 沒有一個人知道基督什麼時候會來。No one on this earth knows when Christ will return.
  46. 基督現在就在作王掌權,祂是萬有之主。Christ reigns now as sovereign Lord over all.
  47. 將來必有最後審判和復活。There will be a final resurrection and judgment.
  48. 身體和靈魂是有區別的,但在死亡時會不自然地被分開。The body and soul are distinct but separated unnaturally at death.
  49. 身體和靈魂在復活時會重新結合在一起。The body and soul will be reunited at the resurrection.
  50. 基督再來時身體將會復活。The bodily resurrection will occur at Christ’s return.
  51. 天使曾墮落。There was an angelic lapse.
  52. 撒但是一個墮落的天使。Satan is a fallen angel
  53. 天堂是一個永恆祝福之地或一種永恆祝福的經歷。Heaven is a place or experience of eternal blessedness.
  54. 地獄是一個永恆受苦之地或一種永恆受苦的經歷。Hell is a place or experience of eternal torment.
  55. 被遺棄的人和撒但會在地獄受到永恆的刑罰。The reprobate and Satan will suffer eternal punishment in hell.

八、 倫理學Ethics

  1. 真正的基督教精神是不能被私有化或孤立的,它必須在認信基督的聖約團體之中活出來。True Christianity cannot be privatized or isolated and must be lived in the Christ Confessing Covenant Community.
  2. 基督是自然之主,也是恩典之主。Christ is the Lord of nature and of grace.
  3. 基督徒生活中有兩個最大的掙扎:接受神的恩典,並接受神的眷護管理。The greatest struggles of the Christian life are two: accepting divine grace and divine providence.
  4. 十誡是神的律法的普遍原則。基督在馬太福音二十二37-40中總結了十誡。The decalogue is the general equity of God’s law. Christ summarized the decalogue in Matthew 22.37-40.
  5. 自然律與十誡在本質上是相同的,自然律在伊甸園中就被啟示出來了,全人類都生來有這樣的認知,因此,所有的人在神面前都無可推諉。The law of nature is substantially identical to the decalogue and was revealed in Eden and is known naturally by all humans such that all are without excuse before God.
  6. 神的律法(無論是在舊約或是新約中所表明的)是基督徒生活的標準。God’s law (whether expressed in the Old or New Testament) is the norm for the Christian’s moral life.
  7. 在舊約(摩西之約)中有三種不同形態的律法:道德律(moral)、民事律(civil)、禮儀律(ceremonial)。There are three types of law in the Old (Mosaic) Testament: moral, civil and ceremonial.
  8. 由於民事律和禮儀律是具體和刻意要與舊約(摩西之約)相連的,在基督君王和祭司的工作中,它們的要求已經得到滿足,所以,它們對基督徒不再有約束力。Because civil and ceremonial law were specifically and intentionally tied to the Old (Mosaic) covenant, they were fulfilled in the Kingly and Priestly work of Christ and are therefore no longer binding on the Christian.
  9. 因為摩西的民事律是具體和刻意要與那暫時、預表性的舊約(摩西之約)相連,它從來不是用來作為「摩西-大衛」神治國度以外任何時期的標準。The Mosaic civil law, because it was specifically and intentionally tied to the temporary and typical Old (Mosaic) covenant, it was never intended to serve as norm for any other state than Mosaic-Davidic theocracy.
  10. 任何企圖要重新設立摩西的民事律,或是它們的處罰,都未能理解舊約(摩西時期之聖約)那預表性的、暫時性的、民族性的特質。Any attempt to reimpose the Mosaic civil laws or their penalties fails to understand the typological, temporary, national character of the Old (Mosaic) covenant.
  11. 道德律法,就其表達上帝道德意志的實質,而且與舊約的儀式並非綁在一起而言,仍繼續約束著所有的人。The moral law, to the degree it expresses the substance of God’s moral will and is not tied to the ceremonies of the Old covenant, continues to bind all human beings.
  12. 律法有三重功用:教導、民事、規範。There are three uses of the Law: the pedagogical, the civil and the normative.
  13. 教導功用在於驅使罪人歸向基督。The pedagogical use drives sinners to Christ.
  14. 民事功用在於規範政府。The civil use norms the state.
  15. 在新約裏,只有律法的第二重功用可以約束政府。In the New Covenant, only the second table of the Law can be said to bind the state.
  16. 有兩個國度:神的國度和人的國度。There are two kingdoms: that of the right hand and that of the left.
  17. 兩個國度都受基督權柄的管轄,但卻按著不同的方法來施行。Both kingdoms are under the authority of Christ, but are administered in diverse ways.
  18. 按著國度不同的本質,基督徒受基督權柄的管轄,同時生活在兩個不同的國度中。In each Christians live under Christ’s lordship according to the nature of that kingdom.
  19. 右手的國度描述的是聖道和聖禮的職事。The kingdom of the Right hand describes the ministry of Word and sacrament.
  20. 左手的國度描述的是在公民和有形教會的領域中行使權力。The kingdom of the left hand describes the exercise of power in the ecclesiastical and civil realms.
  21. 因為兩個國度是有區別的,也因為十誡與自然律在實質上是相同的,所以基督徒應該在政府的領域中,根據對律法的第二重功用的普世性和天然的認知,來維護法律和政策。Because of the distinction between the two kingdoms and because the Decalogue is substantially identical with natural law, Christians should advocate laws and policies in the civil realm on the basis of the universal, natural knowledge of the second table of the law.
  22. 律法的第三重功用規範著基督徒的生活。The third use of the law norms the Christian life.
  23. 否認律法的第三重功用會導致「反律法主義」。Denial of the third use of the Law (tertius usus legis) leads to antinomianism.
  24. 律法的第三重功用,如同它的第一重功用,都驅使我們歸向基督。The third use of the law, like the first use, also drives us to Christ.
  25. 因為律法只能從聖經中的神聖啟示而得知,所以沒有人可以用任何其他的律法來約束我們的良心。Because it cannot be known apart from divine revelation in Holy Scripture, no one may bind our conscience with any law other than that revealed by God.
  26. 成聖(sanctification)與稱義(justification)同樣都是神的恩典。Sanctification is as gracious as justification.
  27. 成聖是稱義的結果。Sanctification is the result of justification.
  28. 聖經啟示了神的道德旨意,這並不表示,無論是在教會裏還是在公民生活中,解釋並應用神所啟示的道德標準時,不需要運用智慧。The revelation of God’s moral will in Scripture does not eliminate the need for wisdom in the interpretation and application of divinely revealed moral norms in the Christian life whether in the church or in civil life.
  29. 基督徒生活是從正確的使用蒙恩之道(the means of grace)湧流出來的。The Christian life flows from the right use of the means of grace.
  30. 神隱藏的(定旨的)旨意和啟示的(道德的)旨意應作適當的區別。後者是聖經的啟示,是我們必須知道和遵行的。而前者是事情發生之後我們才知道的(ex post facto)。There is a proper distinction between God’s hidden (decretive) and revealed (moral) will. The latter has been revealed in Holy Scripture and must be known and obeyed. The former is only known ex post facto.
  31. 神定旨的旨意不存在秘密的啟示。There is no secret revelation of God’s decretive will.
  32. 最好是把禱告看成為感恩最主要的部份(譯按:見海德堡要理問答116),狹義而言,它不是蒙恩之道。It is more helpful to consider that prayer is the chief part of thankfulness than a means of grace considered narrowly.
  33. 廣義而言,禱告可以被描述為蒙恩之道,因為它是神所設立的敬拜元素,神應許要藉著它來運行。Broadly considered, prayer may be described as a means of grace since it is a divinely instituted element of worship through which God has promised to operate.
  34. 「神治主義」(Theonomy)不是改革宗神學的道德系統。Theonomy is not a Reformed ethical system.
  35. 在崇拜中,只能作聖經明白教導或暗示要人遵行的。Only that should be done in worship which is explicitly taught or implicitly required by Scripture.
  36. 基督徒生活源自於神學,沒有神學就沒有基督徒生活。 The Christian life flows from and is impossible without theology.
  37. 聖靈是不能與神的道分開的,把它們分開是一種妄想。The Spirit must never be divorced from the Word. Any such separation is fanaticism.
  38. 現代福音主義(約自1720起)主要是受到宗教經驗和非客觀啟示的驅使(聖經中的啟示是客觀啟示),改革宗可以稱為福音派,但我們不是現代的福音派。Inasmuch as modern evangelicalism (from c. 1720) is driven primarily by religious experience and not objective revelation as revealed in Scripture and confessed by the church, the Reformed may be described as evangelical but we are not modern evangelicals.

譯注:“anxious bench”是19世紀初美洲第二次大覺醒運動時,芬尼(Charles Finney)所發明的一種側重道德勸說的佈道“新方法”(new measure)。講員會呼召罪人(此呼召稱為altar call)來到最靠近講臺前的一排座椅(稱為“anxious bench”——令人焦躁不安的「焦慮長椅」、「悔改座」),等待講員在講道後和他們談話。這是今日教會常用的佈道方法(即今日之「決志」佈道系統),教會的建造也圍繞著這個「講臺呼召」(altar call)來運作。

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