聖約神學綱要(Scott Clark)

聖約神學綱要 THESES ON COVENANT THEOLOGY

By Dr. R. Scott Clark
Associate Professor of Historical and Systematic Theology 
Westminster Seminary California
唐興譯/ 誠之審校 
原文見:https://rscottclark.org/2012/09/theses-on-covenant-theology/ 

一、神學導論  Prolegomena

  1. 聖約神學構建起聖經的全部啟示。
    Covenant theology structures all of Biblical revelation.
  2. 聖經中所啟示的諸約形式是借鑒自並遷就於古代近東歷史的;我們必須在那個文化背景下瞭解聖約。
    The form of the covenants revealed in Scripture was borrowed from and is accommodated to the ancient near eastern world and must be understood in that context.
  3. 聖約是對聖經的啟示與正典本質和權威,最和諧統一的解釋。
    Covenant is the most coherent explanation for Biblical revelation and the nature and authority of the canon.

二、歷史性與神學性的論點 Historical/Theological

  1. 聖約神學並非是從16或17世紀中憑空興起的;實際上,改革宗聖約神學的各個組成部分,在之前的世代就已經初步形成。
    Covenant theology did not arise de novo in the 16th or 17th centuries but virtually all the elements which made up Reformed covenant theology existed inchoately in earlier epochs.
  2. 改革宗正統致力於聖約神學,是為了要使其釋經和教義神學,以救贖歷史的方式表達出來。
    Reformed orthodoxy turned to covenant theology to give redemptive historical expression to their exegetical (biblical) and dogmatic theology.
  3. 從改革宗正統的認知與實踐來看,聖約神學與盟約神學([1])之間沒有實質意義上的區分。
    As understood and practiced by Reformed orthodoxy, there was no meaningful distinction between covenant and federal theology.
  4. 正統路德宗似乎拒絕了改革宗聖約神學,因為他們認為聖約神學混淆了律法和福音。 
    Orthodox Lutheranism appears to have rejected Reformed covenant theology because they saw in it a confusion of Law and Gospel.
  5. 改革宗神學轉向聖約神學,並非要修正或駁回路德的突破,而是為保全更正教的救恩教義,並建立從稱義到成聖間的密切關係。
    Reformed theology turned to covenant theology however, not to revise or reject Luther’s breakthrough, but in order to preserve the Protestant soteriology and relate coherently justification to sanctification.
  6. 古典改革宗神學教導了三大聖約:救贖之約(pactum salutis)、行為之約(foedus operum)和恩典之約(foedus gratiae)。 
    Classical Reformed theology taught three covenants: the covenant of redemption (pactum salutis), the covenant of works (foedus operum) and the covenant of grace (foedus gratiae).

三、聖經與解經方面的論點  Biblical/Exegetical

  1. 聖經的上帝透過聖約與祂的受造物建立關係:自永恆之始(救贖之約),藉著創造(行為之約),藉著護理(保全之約),藉著救贖(恩典之約)。 
    The God of the Bible relates to his creatures covenantally from eternity (pactum salutis), in creation (covenant of works), in providence (covenant of preservation) and in redemption (covenant of grace).
  2. 何西阿書六章7節(「如亞當背約」)證明在聖經作者的意識裏,的確有墮落前的「行為之約」。 
    Hosea 6:7 (“like Adam”) confirms the consciousness of the Biblical authors of a prelapsarian covenant of works.
  3. 使徒保羅預設了墮落前行為之約的存在(羅二13,四4)。 
    The Apostle Paul presupposes the existence of a prelapsarian covenant of works in passages such as Romans 2:13 and 4:4).
  4. 亞當被逐離開生命樹(創三22-24),證實了行為之約之考驗(probationary)的特質。
    The excommunication from the Tree of Life (Genesis 3:22-24) confirms the probationary nature of the covenant of works.
  5. 行為之約具有多重記號與印記(signs and seals),包括:創造的安息日、分別善惡樹、和生命樹。 
    There were multiple signs and seals of the covenant of works including the creational Sabbath, the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and the tree of life.
  6. 創世記三章15節首次的福音應許,就是恩典之約的宣告,即中保對選民的救贖。 
    The first Gospel promise in Genesis 3:15 announces the covenant of grace, i.e. redemption of the elect by the Mediator.
  7. 恩典之約是在救贖歷史中,福音施行的歷史進展紀錄。
    The covenant of grace is the progressive historical account of the administration of the Gospel in the history of redemption.
  8. 第一個挪亞之約(創六17-19)是特殊的盟約,是恩典之約的一種施行。
    The first Noahic covenant (Genesis 6:17-19) was particular and an administration of the covenant of grace.
  9. 第二個挪亞之約(創九8-17)是一個普世性、不具救贖性質的盟約,它應許了對審判的節制,直到最後的日子。
    The second Noahic covenant (Genesis 9:8-17) was a universal non-soteric covenant promising the restraint of judgment until the last day.
  10. 亞伯拉罕之約是神對亞當所頒布的墮落後聖約/應許(創三15-17)的更新。
    The Abrahamic covenant is a renewal of the postlapsarian covenant/promise made to Adam (Genesis 3:15; 17).
  11. 在救贖歷史中,恩典之約在亞伯拉罕裏被更新了,如此,亞伯拉罕就成了所有信徒之父(羅四11;約八56)。 
    In the history of redemption, the covenant of grace was renewed in Abraham such that he is the father of all who believe (Romans 4:11; John 8:56).
  12. 亞伯拉罕之約在邏輯上和歷史上是先於摩西之約的。 
    The Abrahamic covenant is logically as well as historically prior to the Mosaic.
  13. 摩西之約並沒有在基督裏被更新,但是亞伯拉罕之約則被更新了。 
    The Mosaic covenant was not renewed under Christ, but the Abrahamic covenant was.
  14. 將地賜給亞伯拉罕的應許(創十五18;出六4;士二1)是對最終狀態(來十一10)和新的約將要臨到之祝福的預表(創二4;加三14;來八)。
    The land promise made to Abraham (Genesis 15:18; Exodus 6:4; Judges 2:1) was typical of the coming blessings of the New Covenant (Genesis 2:4; Galatians 3:14; Hebrews 8) and the final state (Hebrews 11:10).
  15. 所有在摩西之下被稱義的人都是唯獨靠著恩典、唯獨藉著信心、和唯獨在基督裏而被稱為義的。All those justified under Moses were justified by grace alone, through faith alone in Christ alone.
  16. 就賜地的應許來說,摩西之約是為了教導的緣故(加三23-四7)所作的必要修正;也是對亞當行為之約的重新頒布(republication)。 
    With regard to the land promise, the Mosaic covenant was, mutandis, for pedagogical reasons (Galatians 3:23-4:7), a republication of the Adamic covenant of works.
  17. 就稱義和救恩來說,摩西之約是恩典之約的一種施行。
    With regard to justification and salvation, the Mosaic covenant was an administration of the covenant of grace.
  18. 以色列人是藉著恩典得到、並保有應許之地(王下十三23),但是他們被逐出的原因是未能遵行那暫時性的、預表性的、教導性的行為之約(創十二7;出六4;申二十九19-29;王下十七6-7;結十七)。
    The Israelites were given the land and kept it by grace (2 Kings 13:23) but were expelled for failure to keep a temporary, typical, pedagogical, covenant of works (Genesis 12:7; Exodus 6:4; Deuteronomy 29:19-29; 2 Kings 17:6-7; Ezekiel 17).
  19. 恩典之約,於墮落後的歷史中啟動,是位於亞當、挪亞、和亞伯拉罕之下的倒數第三順位,是位於新約實施的倒數第二順位;並將於終末成全時達到其最終(末世)的狀態。
    The covenant of grace, initiated in history after the fall, was in its antepenultimate state under Adam, Noah, and Abraham, its penultimate state under the New Covenant administration and shall reach its ultimate (eschatological) state in the consummation.
  20. 聖經用「舊(的)約」(Old Covenant)這個詞,是指摩西時期,而不是指道成肉身之前的所有時期,也不是毫無區分地指所有的希伯來文和亞蘭文聖經。 
    The term “Old Covenant” as used in Scripture refers to the Mosaic epoch not every epoch before the incarnation nor to all of the Hebrew and Aramaic Scriptures indiscriminately.
  21. 「新的約」的「新」是相較於摩西之約而言,而非亞伯拉罕之約。 
    The New Covenant is new relative to Moses, not Abraham.
  22. 「舊的約」對「新的約」來說,具備了暫時性和預表性的意義。 
    The Old Covenant was temporary and typical of the New Covenant.
  23. 從救贖歷史角度來看,舊的約(摩西之約)偏重於律法(字句)的職事;新的約則偏重於聖靈的職事(林後三)。
    In redemptive historical terms, the Old (Mosaic) Covenant was weighted toward the ministry of the Law (“the letter”) whereas the New Covenant is weighted toward the ministry of the Holy Spirit (2 Corinthians 3).
  24. 新的約是對亞當的應許(創三15)以及對(亞伯拉罕)恩典之約的應驗。 
    The New Covenant is the fulfillment of the promise made to Adam (Genesis 3:15) and the (Abrahamic) covenant of grace.
  25. 新的約是實體,由道成肉身之前的預表(types)和影兒(shadows)所預表(林後一20;約六32;來七~九)。
    The New Covenant is the reality typified by the pre-incarnational types and shadows (2 Corinthians 1:20; John 6:32; Hebrews 7-9).
  26. 律法(行為之約)和福音(恩典之約)的關係可以從(救贖)歷史和釋經學來區分。 
    Law (covenant of works) and gospel (covenant of grace) may be distinguished historically and hermeneutically (i.e., the relations) .
  27. 就釋經學來說,律法(行為之約)和福音(恩典之約)的區別在於:律法(行為之約)是講到我們個人必須恆久不斷地完全遵行律法的要求,才得以稱義;福音(恩典之約)則是宣告基督已經替我們完全地遵行了律法。 
    The hermeneutical distinction between law (covenant of works) and gospel (covenant of grace) is the distinction between our personal and perpetual obligation to keep the law perfectly for justification and the announcement that Christ has kept the law perfectly for us.
  28. 以(救贖)歷史來說,律法和福音的區別可以被看作是行為之約和恩典之約的區分。 
    The historical distinction between law and gospel may be reckoned as the distinction between the covenant of works and the covenant of grace.
  29. 以救贖歷史來說,律法和福音的區別也可以被視為摩西與基督的區分。 
    The historical distinction between law and gospel may also be reckoned as the distinction between Moses and Christ.
  30. 當律法和福音的區別被視為摩西與基督的不同時,也可以說福音在律法之中,以及律法在福音之中。然而,當我們從釋經學來思考律法和福音的區別的時候,這種說法可能就不恰當了。 
    When the law/gospel distinction is reckoned as that between Moses and Christ, there may be said to be gospel in the law and law in the gospel. This way of speaking, however, may not be used properly when considering the law/gospel distinction hermeneutically.

四、系統神學和教義上的論點  Systematic/Dogmatic

  1. 聖約神學是改革宗神學的本質,改變聖約神學就等於改變了改革宗神學的實質。 
    Covenant theology is so of the essence of Reformed theology that to revise its covenant theology is to revise the substance of Reformed theology.
  2. 聖約在救贖歷史中的安排和在聖經中漸進性的啟示不僅僅是一種習俗而已,而是反映出了上帝三位格之間的相互關係。
    The covenantal arrangement of the history of redemption and the covenantal progressive revelation of Scripture is not a mere convention, but rather a reflection of the intra-Trinitarian relations.
  3. 聖經所啟示的所有聖約都包含了應許的祝福和預警的危難。 
    All the covenants revealed in Scripture contain both promised blessing and threatened jeopardy.

五、救贖之約  The Covenant of Redemption (pactum salutisconsilium pacis)

  1. 時間之前的救贖之約(pactum salutis),乃是行為之約和恩典之約的基礎,並命定了救贖的歷史。 
    The pre-temporal covenant of redemption (pactum salutis) stands behind the covenant of works and covenant of grace and orders the history of redemption.
  2. 在救贖歷史中,救贖之約對聖子而言,是指祂的工作,而對我們而言則是指賜給我們的救恩。 
    In the history of redemption, the pactum salutis means works for the Son and grace for us.
  3. 救贖之約的聖經基礎是:詩一百一十;約五30,六38-40,十七;加三20以及其他經文。
    The pactum salutis is biblically grounded in Psalm 110, John 5:30; 6:38-40; 17; Gal 3:20 among other places.
  4. 基督作為選民的代表,以祂主動和被動的順服,完全滿足了救贖之約的律法義務與要求。 
    Christ fulfilled the legal obligations of the pactum salutis in his active and passive obedience as the representative of the elect.
  5. 認為救贖之約趨向於三神論似乎是忽視了「工作的三一」(economic Trinity;或譯為「經世」的三一)與「本體的三一」(ontological Trinity)之間的區別。 
    The allegation that the pactum salutis tends to tritheism seems to ignore the distinction between the economic and ontological Trinity.
  6. 聖靈的工作在救贖之約之中並未經常受到討論,這是因為其重點在於客觀救贖的完成,而非主觀救贖的施行。 
    The work of the Holy Spirit has not always been discussed under the pactum salutis only because it focuses on the accomplishment of redemption rather than the application of redemption.
  7. 聖靈的確承諾要將基督(已完成)的(救贖)工作施行在蒙揀選者的身上(約十五26),因此,沒有任何理由說聖靈的工作不能被整合於救贖之約之中。
    Since the Spirit certainly consented to apply Christ’s work to the elect (John 15:26), there is no reason why the Holy Spirit’s work cannot be integrated into the pactum salutis.

六、行為之約  The Covenant of Works (foedus operum)

  1. 墮落前的聖約,以它的條件來說可以稱為行為之約,以它的目的來說則可以稱為生命之約,而以它的場景來說可以被稱作大自然之約。這三個名稱都是在描述同一個約。
    The pre-lapsarian covenant may be called a covenant of works in respect to its terms, a covenant of life in respect to its goals and a covenant of nature in respect to its setting. All three names describe the same covenant.
  2. 對改革宗神學來說,行為之約與律法是等同的,意味著:如此遵行就得生命(Do this and live)。 
    In Reformed theology, the covenant of works is identical to the Law which says: Do this and live.
  3. 耶穌基督代表祂的子民,以祂對上帝的律法之主動和被動的順服,成全了行為之約。 
    Jesus Christ fulfilled the covenant works in his active and passive obedience to God’s law on behalf of his people.
  4. 因亞當的墮落,行為之約作為得著永生的道路就被廢除了。 
    The covenant of works was abrogated as a way to eternal life by the fall.
  5. 墮落之後,行為之約的條件仍然繼續約束著所有具理性的受造物,這些條件必需經由人自己或中保來完全地履行。
    Post-lapsum the terms of the covenant of works continue to obligate all rational creatures and must be perfectly fulfilled personally or vicariously.
  6. 任何人如果否定墮落前的行為之約,就危害了聖經和更正教稱義的教義:惟獨靠著恩典、惟獨藉著信心、惟獨在基督裏。
    Anyone who denies the prelapsarian covenant of works jeopardizes the Biblical and Protestant doctrine of justification by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone.

七、恩典之約  The Covenant of Grace (foedus gratiae)

  1. 每當我們用到聖約的一些措詞時,我們都應該特別說明是哪一個聖約。 
    When we speak in covenantal terms we should always specify to which covenant we refer.
  2. 救贖之約是恩典之約的基礎,和恩典之約並不相同。 
    The pactum salutis is distinct from and the basis of the covenant of grace.
  3. 把行為之約與恩典之約相互混淆是可悲的神學誤謬。 
    It is a grievous theological error to confuse the covenant of works with the covenant of grace.
  4. 「恩典之約」有廣義和狹義的用法。廣義用法是指因受洗而加入認信基督之聖約團體的每一個人。狹義用法則是專指著某些人,他們承受了基督雙重的恩惠:稱義與成聖。  
    The term covenant of grace can be used broadly and narrowly. When used broadly, it refers to everyone who is baptized into the Christ confessing covenant community. When used narrowly, it refers to those who have received the double benefit of Christ: justification and sanctification.
  5. 廣義而言,恩典之約與揀選並非同義詞,所有的被揀選者都在恩典之約內,但所有在恩典之約裏的人並不都是蒙揀選者。 
    Used in the broader sense, the covenant of grace is not synonymous with election so that all the elect are in the covenant of grace, but not all in the covenant of grace are elect.
  6. 狹義來說,恩典之約僅指揀選而言。 
    Used in the narrow sense, the covenant of grace refers only to the elect.
  7. 對恩典之約的區分是合理和必要的:有一部分人是處在廣義的(外在的)聖約裏;有一部分人是同時處在廣義和狹義(內在的)的聖約裏。 
    There is a just and necessary distinction to be made between those who are in the covenant broadly (externally) and those who are in the covenant both broadly and narrowly (internally).
  8. 恩典之約的內在與外在的區別,是區分有形教會和無形教會的必然結論。 
    The internal/external distinction is a corollary of the distinction between the church considered visibly and invisibly.
  9. 否認「內在與外在」的區別,必定會導致對揀選和神的定旨的混淆,或會認為有兩種不同的揀選:定旨的與「聖約」的(就是一種暫時的、歷史的、條件性的揀選)。這種觀點在所謂的”Federal Vision”(盟約異象)神學中是很明顯的。 
    Denial of the “internal/external” distinction leads necessarily to confusing election and the decree or to positing two types of election, decretal and “covenantal” (i.e., a temporary, historical, conditional election) as is evident in the so-called “Federal Vision” theology.
  10. 福音不是對揀選,而是對恩典和主權性的除罪之拯救的應許,這救恩是惟獨藉著信心才能得到的。 
    The Gospel is not a promise of election but of a gracious and sovereign salvation from sin which salvation is received through faith alone.
  11. 恩典之約含有兩個恩惠:稱義與成聖; 稱義在邏輯上居於優先地位。 
    There are two chief benefits of the covenant of grace: justification and sanctification of which justification has logical priority.
  12. 稱義的唯一根基是基督在祂的主動和被動的順服中,完全滿足了行為之約的條件。 
    The sole ground of justification is the fulfillment of the condition of the covenant of works by Christ in his active and passive obedience.
  13. 「稱義之信心」的唯一對象是基督,祂為我們成了救贖之約的保證人;替我們完成了行為之約,並為我們成了恩典之約的中保。 
    The sole object of justifying faith is Christ the Surety of the covenant of redemption for us, and the fulfillment of the covenant of works for us, and the Mediator of the covenant of grace to us.
  14. 稱義的唯一方法和恩典之約唯一條件就是:一種領受的、安息的、和向外看的信心,也就是信靠基督完美遵行了行為之約。 
    The sole instrument of justification and condition of the covenant of grace is a receptive, resting, extra-spective, faith which trusts in Christ’s keeping of the covenant of works.
  15. 唯有相信者才得著聖約的主要恩惠。 
    Only believers receive the chief benefits of the covenant.
  16. 對改革宗神學來說,恩典之約就是福音之約,與福音有完全相同的條件和要求。 
    In Reformed theology the covenant of grace is a Gospel covenant having precisely the same terms and conditions as the Gospel.
  17. 稱義的信心可以說是恩典之約唯一的條件和方法。 
    Justifying faith may be said to be the only proper condition or instrument of the covenant of grace.
  18. 恩典之約是在墮落之後啟動的,與行為之約有明顯的區別。 
    The covenant of grace was inaugurated post-lapsum and is to be distinguished sharply from the covenant of works.
  19. 恩典之約在起源時是單方面作的(monopleural),而施行時則是雙方面作的(dipleural); 即,就起源來說,福音的授予是無條件的;但領受它的恩惠卻以稱義之信心為條件,而信心本身乃是神賜予祂所揀選之人白白的禮物。 
    The covenant of grace is monopleural in origin and dipleural in administration, i.e. the Gospel offer is unconditional in origin but the reception of its benefits is conditioned upon justifying faith which is itself only God’s free gift to the elect.
  20. 「單一聖約論」(Monocovenantalism),即拒絕區分行為之約和恩典之約,都暗示其對律法和福音的混淆不清。Monocovenantalism or refusal to distinguish between the covenants of works and grace implies a confusion of Law and Gospel. (譯按:例如巴特的神學觀)
  21. 「藉著恩典入門,靠著行為得保守」的口號通常是與所謂的「保羅新觀」(New Perspective on Paul)有關,其實它正是保羅所譴責的加拉太教會的異端。 
    The slogan “in by grace, stay in by works,” sometimes associated with the so-called “New Perspective on Paul,” is nothing less than the Galatian heresy condemned by the Apostle Paul.
  22. 信心領受恩典之約的恩惠, 乃是由於上帝的恩典和信心之目標(基督)的美德,並非因為信心(本身)的品質、德性或聖潔。
    Faith receives the benefits of the covenant of grace because of God’s grace and the virtue of its object (Christ) not because of its qualities, virtues, or sanctity.
  23. 將聖約神學在律法和關係方面的觀點平行並列是不必要的。對這三個聖約而言,個人與神的關係是以公義律法之關係為前提的。
    It is unnecessary to juxtapose the legal and relational aspects of covenant theology. In all three covenants, personal relations are premised upon just legal relations.
  24. 成聖是恩典之約的第二個恩惠,它源於稱義。 
    Sanctity is the second benefit of the covenant of grace and flows from justification.
  25. 成聖與稱義同樣都是神的恩典。 
    Sanctity is as gracious as justification.
  26. 成聖在邏輯上和道德上是必然的,它是重生、信心、稱義的證據。 
    Sanctity is logically and morally necessary as evidence of regeneration, faith and justification.
  27. 相對於成聖(與稱義不同),信心可以說是主動的,都是由神的恩典創始與保守的,但涉及到人與成聖恩典的合作。 
    Considered relative to sanctification (in distinction from justification) faith can be said to be active and is begun and sustained by grace but involves human cooperation with sanctifying grace.
  28. 成聖並不是稱義的方法或根據。 
    Sanctity is no instrument or ground of justification.
  29. 成聖乃出於正當地執行了神定旨的聖約記號和印記。 
    Sanctity flows out of proper use of the divinely ordained covenant signs and seals.
  30. 道德律(moral law)的第三重功用就是聖約生活的規範。 
    The third use of the moral law is norm of covenant life.
  31. 否認律法的第三重功用(tertius usus legis)就會導致「反律法主義」。 
    Denial of the third use of the Law (tertius usus legis) leads to antinomianism.
  32. 律法的第三重功用,與第一重功用類似,都是要把我們引向基督。 
    The third use of the law, like the first use, also drives us to Christ.

八、教會  Ecclesiastical

  1. 教會同時是普世性和地方性的,認信基督的聖約團體。 
    The church is both the univ ersal and local Christ confessing covenant community.
  2. 在認信基督的聖約團體中,神定旨了三個特定職分:牧師、長老、執事。 
    God has ordained three special offices in the Christ confessing covenant community: minister, elder and deacon.
  3. 基督徒有義務要加入一個認信基督的聖約團體。 
    Christians are obligated to join themselves to a true Christ confessing covenant community.
  4. 一個真正的、認信基督的聖約團體的標記乃是:傳講純正的福音(恩典之約)、施行純正的聖約記號和印記(聖禮)、和執行教會的紀律/懲戒。 
    The marks of a true, Christ confessing, covenant community are the pure preaching of the Gospel (the covenant of grace), the pure administration of the covenant signs and seals (sacraments) and the administration of discipline.
  5. 在真正的認信基督的聖約團體以外,通常是無法活出純正的基督徒生活的。 
    A genuinely Christian life cannot ordinarily be lived outside a true Christ confessing covenant community.
  6. 認信基督的聖約團體成員,既接受了聖約的記號和印記,就有道德義務要在生活上忠於這個聖約團體,並且定期、持續地使用恩典的管道(means of grace;或譯為蒙恩之道)(即聖道和聖禮)。 
    Members of the Christ confessing covenant community who have received the sign and seal of the covenant are morally obligated to live in fidelity to that community and to make regular and consistent use of the means of grace (Word and sacrament).
  7. 與蒙恩之道有分,可以說是恩典之約的要求,或是道德上的義務,抑或是恩典之約的第二個條件;但這些都是不同於那恩典之約的正當的條件和方法。 
    Attendance to the means of grace may be said to be stipulations or moral obligations or even second order conditions of the covenant of grace so long as they are distinguished from the proper condition or instrument of the covenant of grace.
  8. 聖約的聖道有兩個部分:律法和福音。 
    The Word of the covenant is in two parts: Law and Gospel.
  9. 宣講福音乃神所規定的途徑,藉著宣告福音,聖靈在恩典之約的成員心裏造作信心。 
    The proclamation of the Gospel is the divinely ordained means by which the Holy Spirit works faith in the hearts of members of the covenant of grace.
  10. 恩典之約有兩個記號和印記(聖禮),即洗禮和聖餐。 
    There are two signs and seals (sacraments) of the covenant of grace, Baptism and the Lord’s Supper.
  11. 聖禮標記並印證了信徒與基督的死與埋葬的身分和聯合。 
    The sacraments signify and seal the identity with and union of the believer with the death and burial of Christ.
  12. 因為是恩典之約的記號和印記,它們是福音而非律法。 
    As signs and seals of the covenant of grace, they are Gospel not Law.
  13. 聖禮是給所有受禮者的記號,是給蒙揀選者的印記。 
    The sacraments are signs to all and seals to the elect.
  14. 聖約的記號和印記是選民的祝福,但也會給未蒙揀選者帶來危難。 
    The covenant signs and seals are a blessing to the elect but come also with jeopardy to the reprobate.
  15. 因著有形/無形(內在的/外在的)的區別,與聖約的記號與印記有分,有可能帶給人害處(林前十;來六,十)。
    Because of the visible/invisible distinction (internal/external) it is possible to participate in the covenant signs and seals to one’s harm (1 Corinthians 10; Hebrews 6; 10).
  16. 對所有的信徒而言,聖約的記號與印記是蒙典的管道,據此他們的信心確實得到增強,逐漸成為聖潔。
    The covenant signs and seals are means of grace for all believers whereby their faith is genuinely strengthened and their sanctification advanced.
  17. 因為否認了內在/外在的區別,「聖約客觀性」(covenant objectivity)的鼓吹者教導一種聖餐觀,這種看法與羅馬天主教「因功生效(ex opere operato)」的觀念實際上是沒有區分的。 
    Because they deny the internal/external distinction, advocates of “covenant objectivity” teach a view of the sacraments which is virtually indistinguishable from the Roman ex opere operato view.
  18. 洗禮與聖餐的區別在於:洗禮是進入恩典之約的記號和印記。 
    In distinction from the Lord’s Supper, Baptism is the sign and seal of initiation into the covenant of grace.
  19. 在救贖歷史中,洗禮是繼割禮之後成為進入恩典之約的記號和印記。 
    In the history of redemption, baptism succeeded circumcision as the sign and seal of initiation.
  20. 廣義來說,所有領受洗禮者都可以說是在恩典之約內, 但並非每一位領洗者都領受到恩典之約的實質或恩惠。
    All baptized persons can be said to be in the covenant of grace in the broad sense. Not everyone who is baptized receives the substance or benefits of the covenant of grace.
  21. 洗禮本身並不能使人重生,或使受洗者與基督聯合。 
    Baptism does not itself regenerate or necessarily unite the baptized to Christ.
  22. 聖經要求未接受過洗禮的成人初信者要接受洗禮。 
    Scripture requires the baptism of adult converts who have not been previously baptized.
  23. 聖經教導聖約兒童的洗禮。 
    Scripture teaches the baptism of covenant children.
  24. 聖約兒童接受洗禮不是認為他們會重生,而是基於上帝的命令和附屬於洗禮的應許。 
    We do not baptize covenant children on the presumption of their regeneration, but on basis of the divine command and promises attached to baptism.
  25. 凡是針對新約信徒之父亞伯拉罕所實行的聖約洗禮(嬰兒洗禮)所提出的反對意見,都會因此而無效。[[2]]
    Every objection made against covenant (infant) baptism which can be made against covenant (infant) circumcision as practiced under Abraham the father of New Covenant believers is for that reason invalid.
  26. 正如進入聖約的舊記號和印記(割禮)只能遵行一次,新的記號和印記(洗禮)也只能施行一次。Just as the old sign and seal of covenant initiation (circumcision) could only be observed once so the new sign and seal of covenant initiation (baptism) can only be observed once.
  27. 聖餐與洗禮的區別在於:聖餐是聖約更新的記號與印記。 
    In distinction from Baptism, the Supper is the sign and seal of covenant renewal.
  28. 以聖餐是聖約更新的記號和印記來說,聖餐對那些無法明白基督(在聖餐)同在的本質,以及不認識聖餐是附帶著祝福和傷害的人是不適當的。 
    As a sign of covenant renewal the Supper is not appropriate for those who cannot understand the nature of Christ’s presence or the blessing and jeopardy which attach to the Supper.
  29. 聖餐是以色列(聖約)所有筵席的應驗。
    The Lord’s Supper is the fulfillment of all the typical Israelite feasts.
  30. 正如信徒吃逾越節的羊羔,基督就是那真正的神的羔羊,祂的確、並真實地在聖餐中與我們同在。 
    Just as believers fed on the Passover lamb, as the true Lamb of God, Christ is really and truly present in the Supper.
  31. 在聖餐中,經由聖靈的運行,信徒藉著信心吃喝基督真實的身體和血。 
    In the Supper, believers feed on Christ’s true body and blood by faith, through the operation of the Holy Spirit.
  32. 因為舊約的聖約團體每次聚會時都要吃筵席,也因為聖餐是基督命定的聖約更新的記號與印記,每當新的聖約團體聚集時都應該守聖餐。 
    Because the old covenant community feasted every time they assembled and because the Supper is Christ’s ordained sign and seal of covenant renewal it ought to be observed every time the new covenant community assembles.

九、爭論的問題 Polemics

  1. 就如「時代論」一樣,「新聖約」神學(”New Covenant” theology,NCT)的釋經學的三一神觀念是有缺失的。 
    Like Dispensationalism, “New Covenant” theology (NCT) is not sufficiently Trinitarian in its hermeneutic.
  2. 「新聖約神學」忽視了恩典之約的統一性。 
    NCT ignores the unity of the covenant of grace.
  3. 「新聖約神學」沒有注意到摩西和基督之間的明顯不連續的事實。 
    It is unclear how NCT does not tend toward a radical discontinuity between Moses and Christ.
  4. 「新聖約神學」沒有說明摩西和亞伯拉罕之間的不同。 
    NCT does not account for the distinction between Moses and Abraham.
  5. 「新聖約神學」傾向於反律法主義。 
    NCT tends toward antinomianism.
  6. 在時代論歷史中的三個階段(古典時代論、修正時代論、漸進時代論)中的前兩個時代論是與聖約神學有抵觸的。 
    Dispensationalism of the three stages in the history of Dispensationalism (classic, modified, progressive), the first two are inimical to covenant theology.
  7. 古典和修正時代論傾向於在摩西與基督之間作出激烈的(馬吉安教派)割裂。[[3]
    Classic and modified Dispensationalism tend to a radical (Marcionite) disjunction between Moses and Christ.
  8. 如同神治主義(Theonomy;或譯為神律論)一般,時代論錯誤地把摩西之約作為目標,而不是一種暫時的、預表性的安排。 
    Like Theonomy, Dispensationalism wrongly makes the Mosaic covenant the goal rather than a temporary, typical arrangement.
  9. 因為假定了兩種不同的子民,時代論重建了基督以祂的肉身所拆除的分隔牆。 
    By positing two peoples, Dispensationalism resurrects the dividing wall which Christ abolished in his flesh.
  10. 因為民事律和禮儀律是具體並刻意要與舊的(摩西之)約聯繫起來,它們在基督君王和祭司的工作上已經得到應驗,因此基督徒不再受它們的約束。 
    Because the civil and ceremonial laws were specifically and intentionally tied to the Old (Mosaic) covenant, they were fulfilled in the Kingly and Priestly work of Christ and are therefore no longer binding on the Christian.
  11. 摩西時期的民事法是具體並刻意地與暫時的和預表性的舊(摩西之)約相連的,除了「摩西-大衛」的神治國度時期以外,它從未當作其他時期的標準。 
    The Mosaic civil law, because it was specifically and intentionally tied to the temporary and typical Old (Mosaic) covenant, it was never intended to serve as norm for any other state than Mosaic-Davidic theocracy.
  12. 任何要重新設立摩西的民事法,或是其懲誡的企圖,都是沒能理解舊約(摩西時期之聖約)那預表性的、暫時性的、民族性的特質。 
    Any attempt to re-impose the Mosaic civil laws or their penalties fails to understand the typological, temporary, national character of the Old (Mosaic) covenant.
  13. 道德律,就其表明神的道德旨意的實質內容而言,與舊約禮儀並無關聯,它仍然繼續不斷地約束著所有的人。 
    The moral law, to the degree it expresses the substance of God’s moral will and is not tied to the ceremonies of the Old covenant continues to bind all human beings.
  14. 在新的約裏,只有律法的第二重功用在約束著政府。 
    In the New Covenant, only the second table of the Law can be said to bind the state.
  15. 有兩個國度:神的國度和人的國度。 
    There are two kingdoms: that of the right hand and that of the left.
  16. 這兩個國度都在基督的權柄之下,但管理的方式卻各不相同。 
    Both kingdoms are under the authority of Christ, but are administered in diverse ways.
  17. 按著各個國度不同的本質,基督徒在基督主權之下同時生活在這兩個國度之中。  
    In each kingdom, Christians live under Christ’s lordship according to the nature of that kingdom.
  18. 右手的國度所描述的是聖道和聖禮的職事。 
    The kingdom of the Right hand describes the ministry of Word and sacrament.
  19. 左手的國度所描述的是在教會和公民領域中行使權力。 
    The kingdom of the left hand describes the exercise of power in the ecclesiastical and civil realms.
  20. 因為兩個國度是有區別的,也因為十誡與自然法在實質上是相同的,所以基督徒應該根據普世的、天然的,對律法之第二重功用的認知,來擁護公民領域中的法律和政策。 
    Because of the distinction between the two kingdoms and because the Decalogue is substantially identical with natural law, Christians should advocate laws and policies in the civil realm on the basis of the universal, natural knowledge of the second table of the law.

[1] 編者注:Federal Theology,拉丁語foedus即「立約」。

[2] 譯者注:歸正浸信教會對此觀點持不同的看法。 

[3] 譯者注:馬吉安教派是早期教會的異端,不承認舊約是聖經正典的一部份。 

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